Course Number and Title: BIO 110 Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology
This course includes structure and function of the human body with an emphasis on gross anatomy as well as all organ systems and their relationship to homeostasis. Coordinated laboratory activities are an integral part of this course.
- Define terminology related to the general organization of the human body. (CCC 6)
- Outline the basic structure and functions for normal human cells. (CCC 6)
- Relate basic chemical principles to cell function and homeostasis. (CCC 2, 6)
- Describe the organization and functions for tissues and membranes. (CCC 6)
- Describe the normal structure and functions for each of the body systems. (CCC 6)
- Explain the basic principles of human genetics and heredity. (CCC 2, 6)
- Perform and analyze various lab activities related to anatomy and physiology. (CCC 1, 2, 3, 6)
See Core Curriculum Competencies and Program Graduate Competencies at the end of the syllabus. CCPOs are linked to every competency they develop.
Upon completion of this course, the student will:
- Define terminology related to the general organization of the human body.
- Define the terms anatomy and physiology.
- Describe the organization of the body from cells to the whole organism.
- List the regions of the body.
- Define metabolism, and name the two phases of metabolism.
- Define homeostasis and negative feedback.
- List and define the main directional terms for the body.
- List and define the three planes of division of the body.
- Name the subdivisions of the dorsal and ventral cavities.
- Outline the basic structure and functions for normal human cells.
- Describe the function and composition of the plasma membrane.
- Describe the function and composition of the cytoplasm.
- List the main organelles in the cell and their functions.
- Explain the structure and function of DNA and RNA in the cell.
- Explain briefly the process of protein synthesis.
- List and briefly describe the function and stages of somatic and reproductive cell division.
- Describe the methods of membrane transport.
- Explain the consequences of various tonicities.
- Relate basic chemical principles to cell function and homeostasis.
- Define atoms, molecules, and ions.
- Differentiate between extracellular and intracellular fluids.
- Define the terms acid and base.
- Explain how the numbers on the pH scale relate to acidity and alkalinity.
- Define buffer, and explain why buffers are important in the body.
- Name the four main types of organic compounds and the building blocks of each.
- Define enzyme, and describe how enzymes work.
- Briefly explain the role of ATP in the body.
- Describe the organization and functions for tissues and membranes.
- Name the four tissue types and give an example of their location.
- Describe the function and characteristics of epithelial tissue.
- Describe the function and characteristics connective tissue.
- Describe the location and function of the three muscle types.
- List some examples of serous and connective tissue membranes and give the location for each.
- Describe the normal structure and functions for each of the body systems.
- Describe briefly the structure and function of the integumentary system.
- Describe the accessory integumentary structures and their functions.
Skeletal System and Articulations
- List the functions of the skeletal system.
- Name the three types of bone cells, and describe their functions.
- Compare compact and spongy bone.
- Describe the structures of a long bone.
- List the bones in the axial and appendicular skeleton, and define bone markings.
- Describe the location, structure, and function of the three types of articulations.
- Name the macro- and microscopic structures of a muscle.
- Describe the physiology of muscle contraction.
- Define Muscle tone, and list two functions.
- List and identify some of the major superficial skeletal muscles and their movements.
Nervous System and Sensations
- Describe the structural organization and the function of the nervous system.
- Name the parts of a neuron and the various supporting glial cells.
- Explain the propagation and conduction of a nerve impulse.
- List the structures of a synapse, and explain its function.
- Discuss the anatomical position, gross structure, and function of the spinal cord and brain.
- List some of the major spinal nerves.
- Describe a reflex arc, and list examples of reflexes.
- Describe cerebrospinal fluid, and briefly state where and how this fluid is formed.
- List the names and functions of the 12 cranial nerves.
- Differentiate between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.
- Define general and special senses, and explain the general purpose of sensations.
- Define sensory receptor, classify them based on type of stimulus, and provide a body location for each.
- Describe the structures for vision, olfaction, gustation, and hearing & equilibrium.
- Compare and contrast the nervous system with the endocrine system.
- Identify the glands of the endocrine system.
- List some hormones produced by the endocrine glands, and describe their effects.
- Describe the actions of the hormones used in the stress response.
- Describe the components and functions of the blood.
- List the stages in hemostasis.
- Explain blood typing.
- Describe the gross anatomy of the heart.
- Trace blood circulation through the heart, and discuss the heart’s conduction system.
- Define an EKG, and describe the cardiac cycle including the heart sounds.
- Compare the structure and function of arteries, capillaries, and veins.
- List the major arteries and veins.
- Compare the pulmonary and systemic circuits, and describe the hepatic portal system.
- Define pulse, and explain blood pressure.
- Describe the role of vasoconstriction and vasodilation in maintaining blood pressure.
Lymphatic and Immune System
- List the functions of the lymphatic system.
- List the major structures of the lymphatic system, and give the locations and functions of each.
- Describe the main lymphatic ducts.
- Define nonspecific and specific body defenses, and give examples of each.
- Describe the cells of immunity and their functions.
- Describe the structures of the respiratory system and their functions.
- Define respiration, ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration.
- Explain pulmonary ventilation.
- List the ways in which oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood.
- Describe the regulation of respiration.
- List the functions of the digestive system.
- Describe the four layers of the digestive tract wall.
- List and describe the organs and accessory organs of the digestive tract.
- Describe the functions of each organ involved in digestion.
- Explain the role of enzymes in digestion, and give examples of enzymes.
- List the digestion products of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Urinary System and Body Fluids
- List the components of the urinary system and their functions.
- Describe a nephron.
- Describe the process of urine formation.
- List several normal and abnormal constituents of urine.
- Define electrolytes and describe their importance.
- Name the male and female gonads, and describe their function.
- State the purpose of meiosis, and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
- List the accessory organs of the male reproductive tract and their functions.
- State briefly the composition of seminal fluid.
- List the accessory organs of the female reproductive tract and their functions.
- Describe the phases of the menstrual and ovarian cycles and the hormones involved.
- Describe fertilization, implantation, and early embryonic development.
- Describe the function of the placenta and relationship to the umbilical cord.
- Briefly describe the stages of labor.
- Explain the basic principles of human genetics and heredity.
- Explain the roles of DNA, genes, and chromosomes in inheritance.
- Describe the basic patterns of inheritance.
- Compare and contrast between the somatic and sex chromosomes.
- Describe the genetic basis for common inherited disorders.
- Perform and analyze various lab activities related to anatomy and physiology.
- Identify anatomical structures of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, lymphatic, and reproductive systems on models, diagrams and/or computer programs in a laboratory setting.
- Perform various online or active laboratory exercises to demonstrate physiological changes in various body systems. These may include the skeletal, respiratory, digestive, urinary, acid/base balance, muscular, cardiovascular, and endocrine or nervous systems.
The grade will be determined using the Delaware Tech grading system:
Students should refer to the Student Handbook for information on the Academic Standing Policy, the Academic Integrity Policy, Student Rights and Responsibilities, and other policies relevant to their academic progress.
Calculated using the following weighted average
Percentage of final grade
Lecture exams (summative – equally weighted)
Lecture quizzes (summative)
Assignments: Formative – equally weighted
Lab assessments (summative – equally weighted)
Lab exercises (formative)
- Apply clear and effective communication skills.
- Use critical thinking to solve problems.
- Collaborate to achieve a common goal.
- Demonstrate professional and ethical conduct.
- Use information literacy for effective vocational and/or academic research.
- Apply quantitative reasoning and/or scientific inquiry to solve practical problems.
The College is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. Students are encouraged to schedule an appointment with the campus Disabilities Support Counselor to request an accommodation needed due to a disability. A listing of campus Disabilities Support Counselors and contact information can be found at the disabilities services web page or visit the campus Advising Center.