BIO 110 Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

Campus Location:
Georgetown, Dover, Stanton, Wilmington
Effective Date:
ENG 090 or ENG 091 or higher, SSC 100 or concurrent
Course Credits and Hours:
4.00 credits
3.00 lecture hours/week
2.00 lab hours/week
Course Description:

This course includes structure and function of the human body with an emphasis on gross anatomy as well as all organ systems and their relationship to homeostasis. Coordinated laboratory activities are an integral part of this course.

Required Text(s):

Obtain current textbook information by viewing the campus bookstore online or visit a campus bookstore. Check your course schedule for the course number and section.

Additional Materials:


Schedule Type:
Classroom Course
Hybrid Course
Online Course


Core Course Performance Objectives (CCPOs):
  1. Define terminology related to the general organization of the human body. (CCC 1, 6)
  2. Relate basic chemical principles to cell function and homeostasis. (CCC 6)
  3. Outline the basic structure and functions for normal human cells. (CCC 6)
  4. Describe the organization and functions for tissues and membranes. (CCC 6)
  5. Describe the normal structure and functions for each of the body systems. (CCC 6)
  6. Describe the basic principles of human genetics and heredity. (CCC 6)
  7. Perform and analyze various lab activities related to anatomy and physiology. (CCC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

See Core Curriculum Competencies and Program Graduate Competencies at the end of the syllabus. CCPOs are linked to every competency they develop.

Measurable Performance Objectives (MPOs):

Upon completion of this course, the student will:

  1. Define terminology related to the general organization of the human body.
    1. Define anatomy and physiology.
    2. Define cell, tissue, organ, system, and organism.
    3. List ten major organ systems of a human being.
    4. Describe the correct anatomical position of the human body.
    5. List the body cavities into two major divisions and their subdivisions.
    6. List nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity.
    7. List organs located in each four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.
    8. List ten directional terms; describe and give two examples of each term.
    9. Define the three planes of division of the body.
  2. Relate basic chemical principles to cell function and homeostasis.
    1. Define matter, atom, element, molecule, compound, and mixture, and give examples of each.
    2. Define pH, and describe how the numbers on the pH scale relate to acidity and alkalinity.
    3. Identify the value of electrolytes in maintaining an adequate acid-base and fluid balance in the body, and give examples of cations and anions.
    4. Define energy, calorie, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
    5. List three characteristics of organic compounds.
    6. Compare fats, carbohydrates, and proteins as to chemical constituents and their role.
  3. Outline the basic structure and functions for normal human cells.
    1. Define cell and organelles.
    2. Diagram a cell and label the following: cell membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, cilia, flagella, and cytoplasm.
    3. Describe functions of the organelles.
    4. Give the composition, location, and function of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cell.
    5. Identify the location and functions of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the cell.
    6. Define mitosis, and briefly describe the steps of mitosis.
    7. Describe a semipermeable membrane, diffusion, osmosis, and filtration.
    8. Define active and passive transport methods, and give an example of each.
    9. Define phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
    10. Define isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions with regard to their effect on red blood cells (RBCs).
  4. Describe the organization and functions for tissues and membranes.
    1. Define cytology and histology.
    2. List four major groups of tissues in the body; give their locations, describe their functions, and give two or three examples of each.
    3. Define exocrine and endocrine glands.
    4. List the four types of membranes, and give the locations and functions of each.
    5. Define fascia, keloids, perichondrium, and osseous tissue.
  5. Describe the normal structure and functions for each of the body systems.
    1. Skin
      1. Describe four functions of the skin.
      2. List two structures of the skin, and describe their characteristic features.
      3. List five appendages of the skin, and describe their functions.
      4. Identify on the diagram of skin the following structures: epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer, pore, sebaceous gland, sudoriferous gland, pressure receptor, hair follicle, and nerve.
    2. Skeleton, Bones, Joints
      1. Define osteoblast, osteocytes, osteoclast, diaphysis, epiphysis, collagen, compact bone, spongy bone, red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow, periosteum, endosteum, resorption, articular, and arthrology.
      2. List the five functions of the skeletal system.
      3. List two main groups of bones, and describe each group.
      4. Locate and identify the six cranial bones.
      5. Locate and identify the eight facial bones.
      6. Locate and identify the five vertebrae columns, and give numbers for each column.
      7. Locate the following structures of the vertebrae: centrum, foramen, transverse process, spinous process, laminae, and pedicle.
      8. Locate and identify the eight structures of the upper extremities and the seven structures of the lower extremities.
      9. Locate and identify the two thorax bones, and describe their characteristics.
      10. Name and identify the structures of a femur.
      11. Name and identify the structure of a pelvis.
      12. List six major differences between the male and female pelvis.
      13. List the eight common landmarks of bones.
      14. Define foramen magnum, fossae, intervertebrae foramina, obturator foramina, and anterior fontanel.
      15. Name the three major kinds of joints.
      16. Define and give examples of each kind of joint.
      17. Describe the characteristics of synovial joints, and list the six types of synovial joints.
      18. Define flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation, supination, pronation, inversion, and eversion, and demonstrate each movement correctly.
      19. List three compositions of the bone.
      20. List three nutrients required for the bone formation.
      21. Define axis and axial.
    3. Muscular System
      1. List the three main structures and the two characteristics of skeletal muscle.
      2. Describe the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.
      3. Define oxygen debt, isotonic contraction, and isometric contraction.
      4. List two structures for attachments of skeletal muscle, and describe each structure.
      5. List and describe the three main parts of muscle.
      6. List the four functions of muscle.
      7. Describe seven principles of muscular action.
      8. Locate and identify the eighteen major muscles.
      9. List two major muscles involved in the act of breathing.
    4. Nervous System
      1. Define neurology, autonomic nervous system, neuron, receptor, internuncial neuron, effector, myelin sheath, neurolemma, afferent neuron, efferent neuron, nerve fibers, gray matter, white matter, corpus callosum, neuroglia, encephalon, telencephalon, and meninges.
      2. List two major subdivisions of the nervous system.
      3. Diagram two nerve cells, identifying each cell body, nucleus, dendrites, axon, and synapse.
      4. Describe the direction of the impulses, and describe the action that occurs at the synapse when given two nerve cells.
      5. Diagram or identify on charts the following structures: cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brain stem, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and pituitary gland.
      6. Diagram the human brain, identifying the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital areas, and describe the major functions of each of the areas.
      7. List the three main divisions of the brain, and give the location.
      8. Describe the functions of the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and basal nuclei (ganglia).
      9. Identify the eight functional areas of the cerebrum on the diagram.
      10. Identify the location of cerebrospinal fluid in the four ventricles, and describe how it is formed and its two functions.
      11. Describe the structure of the spinal cord, and list three functions of the spinal cord.
      12. Describe the nature of a reflex arc.
      13. Name the three meninges and three spaces, and describe the locations.
      14. Identify the name and functions of the twelve cranial nerves.
      15. Identify the numbers and locations of the spinal nerves, and list the three anterior branches.
      16. Describe briefly the function of the autonomic nerve system.
    5. Sensory System
      1. Describe the functions of the sensory system.
      2. List the six types of sense receptors affected by the external environment, and state where they are located.
      3. Locate on a chart or diagram and describe the functions of the major structures of the eye: sclera, choroid, retina, cornea, lens, suspensory ligaments, ciliary muscles, anterior cavity, posterior cavity, vitreous body (humor), aqueous humor, blind spot, iris, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and optic nerve.
      4. Define rods, cones, accommodation, presbyopia, hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, cataract, glaucoma, refraction, and enucleation.
      5. Identify the intrinsic muscles and extrinsic muscles of the eye.
      6. Identify the boundaries of the external, the middle, and the inner ear.
      7. Locate on a chart or model and describe the function of the major structure of the ear, including the auricle, external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane, eustachian tube, ossicles, bony labyrinth, vestibule, cochlea, semicircular canals, perilymph, and endolymph.
      8. Identify the two sensory nerve supplies to the ear.
      9. List the names of the nerves that involve taste and smell.
    6. Endocrine System and Hormones
      1. Define endocrine, exocrine, and hormone.
      2. Describe the nature of a negative feedback system for release of most of hormones.
      3. Locate on a chart or diagram the nine major endocrine glands, and describe the chief action of all hormones secreted from each gland.
      4. Describe briefly the effects of malfunctioning of the endocrine glands.
      5. Briefly describe how the endocrine system responds to stress.
    7. Blood
      1. Define hematology, plasma, pH of blood, thrombus, embolus, ischemia, hypoxia, anoxia, necrosis, procoagulant, and anticoagulant.
      2. State the average amount of blood found in an average adult.
      3. List the three functions of the blood, and describe each function.
      4. Identify the nine components of plasma, and describe the functions of each.
      5. List the three types of formed elements in the blood.
      6. Describe an erythrocyte and where it is formed, destroyed, and its function.
      7. Describe a leukocyte and where it is formed, destroyed, and its function.
      8. Describe the five types of leukocytes.
      9. Describe a platelet and where it is formed, destroyed, and its function.
      10. Describe the chain of events that occurs when an artery forms an embolus that blocks it.
      11. Describe the chain of steps that occurs in the clotting process.
      12. Identify the four blood groups, and state which is the universal donor and the universal recipient.
      13. Describe the effect of blood type on transfusion.
      14. List the four reasons for blood transfusion.
      15. State the normal values for the following blood tests and a possible cause for an abnormal reading in each case: hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), white blood cell (WBC), and prothrombin time.
    8. Heart
      1. Define cardiology, chordae tendinea, systole, diastole, cardiac cycle, bradycardia, tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, premature beats, murmurs, functional murmur, organic murmur, and electrocardiogram (EKG).
      2. Identify the location of the heart, and list the three layers of the heart.
      3. Locate and identify the four chambers, the valves, and the vessels leading into and out of the heart and the two partitions.
      4. Trace the circulation of blood through the heart and lungs; identify at which points the blood is oxygenated.
      5. Briefly describe blood circulation through the myocardium.
      6. List and describe the components of the heart's conduction system.
      7. Diagram the normal EKG, name each wave, and describe the relationship to the activity of the heart.
    9. Blood Vessels and Blood Circulation
      1. Define arteries, veins, capillaries, pulmonary vessels, systemic circulation, venules, anastomosis, circle of Willis, saphenous vein, cephalic vein, vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and pulse.
      2. Name the three layers of the blood vessels.
      3. Compare and contrast the structure of arteries and veins and what controls the rate of flow of blood.
      4. Name the four sections of the aorta.
      5. Name the main branches of the aorta.
      6. On a chart, trace the route of circulation of blood throughout the body by identifying the following: Brachiocephalic, left and right subclavian, left and right common carotid, pulmonary veins, coronary arteries, intercostal arteries, thoracic aorta, gastric artery, splenic artery, mesenteric artery, common iliac artery, femoral artery, testicular artery, hepatic artery, renal artery, celiac trunk, popliteal, axillary, brachial, radial, ulnar, jugular veins, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus.
      7. List two functions of capillaries.
      8. Briefly describe the function of the hepatic portal system.
      9. List the six factors that may influence the pulse rate.
    10. Lymphatic System
      1. List the three major functions of the lymphatic system.
      2. Describe how lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries.
      3. List the two main lymphatic ducts, and describe the areas drained by each.
      4. List the major structures of the lymphatic system, and give the function of each.
    11. Respiratory System
      1. Define ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration, cellular respiration, and mediastinum.
      2. Describe the purpose of the respiratory system.
      3. Diagram the upper respiratory tract and lungs, labeling the parts in both scientific and lay terms.
      4. Trace the pathway of O2 and CO2.
      5. Describe the characteristics and functions of the following structures: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiolus, alveolar duct, and alveolus.
      6. Identify the location of the lungs, and describe the characteristics of the pleural cavity.
      7. Describe the nature of the respiratory movement, and name the respiratory center.
      8. Draw a graph and list the name and amount of the respiratory volume measurement of the following terms: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, and functional residual capacity.
      9. Define dyspnea, apnea, eupnea, hyperpnea, hypopnea, tachypnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration.
      10. Describe the way in which respiration is regulated.
    12. Digestive System
      1. Define gastroenterology, digestion, absorption, peristalsis, peritoneum, villi, omentum, amino acid, fatty acid, monosaccharide, anorexia, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia.
      2. List the structures of the true digestive tract and the accessory organs.
      3. List the four main functions of the digestive system.
      4. List the three functions of the mouth.
      5. List and describe the four types of teeth.
      6. Compare and contrast deciduous and permanent teeth.
      7. Diagram a molar, identify the location of the crown, neck, root, enamel, pulp cavity, dentin, cementum, and 5th cranial nerve.
      8. Describe the function of salivary glands and the location of the three salivary glands in the body.
      9. Describe the structures and functions of the pharynx and esophagus.
      10. Diagram the stomach; identify the cardiac orifice, fundus, rugae, greater curvature, lesser curvature, pyloric canal, pyloric sphincter, pyloric orifice, and duodenum.
      11. State the three major functions of the stomach; identify five components of gastric juice, and describe their functions.
      12. Describe the two phases in the production of gastric juice.
      13. State three major sections of the small intestine.
      14. List the seven functions of the small intestine; identify four components of intestinal juice, and describe their function.
      15. Diagram the large intestine, identifying the ileocecal valve, appendix, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal, and anal sphincter.
      16. Describe the three functions of the large intestine.
      17. Describe the structure and location of the liver.
      18. List the eight functions of the liver.
      19. Describe the structure and function of the gallbladder.
      20. Diagram a duct system for bile and identify the gallbladder, hepatic duct, cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreas, pancreatic duct, sphincter of Oddi, ampulla of Vater, and duodenum.
      21. Describe the structure and location of the pancreas.
      22. Describe all the functions of the pancreas.
      23. List absorption of foods in the following structures: stomach, small intestines, and large intestine.
      24. List the four hormones that control digestion.
    13. Urinary System and Body Fluids
      1. Define urology, specific gravity, polyuria, oliguria, anuria, diuresis, pH of urine, volume, hematuria, pyuria, glycosuria, albuminuria, and ketonuria.
      2. List the four organs of the excretory system, and describe the waste from each organ.
      3. Describe the location and structure of the kidney.
      4. Describe and label the parts of the urinary system and their functions.
      5. Describe and diagram a nephron and identify the location and functions of the following terms: afferent arterioles, glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule, calyces, and renal pelvis.
      6. List the four processes involved in urine formation and describe the functions of each.
      7. Describe the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in urine formation.
      8. List the four functions of the kidney.
      9. Name two hormones produced by the kidneys, and describe the functions of each.
      10. State the normal and maximum bladder capacities.
      11. State the length of the female and the male urethra.
      12. Name three constituents of urine.
      13. Compare intracellular and extracellular fluids.
      14. Define electrolytes; list at least five ions, and describe their functions.
      15. State the normal pH of the body fluids, and describe the three mechanisms for regulating the pH of body fluids.
      16. Describe the interrelationship between the bladder and the autonomic nerve system.
    14. Reproductive System
      1. Define gynecology, asexual, sexual, gametes, spermatozoa, ova, meiosis, gonads, testosterone, hymen, perineum, episiotomy, puberty, menopause, and contraception.
      2. Diagram or identify on a chart and describe the functions of the following structures: scrotum, testes, seminiferous tubules, interstitial cells, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, Cowpers glands, prostate gland, and penis.
      3. Draw and label a spermatozoan.
      4. Diagram or identify on a chart and describe the functions of the following structures: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (noting the cervix, fundus, body, myometrium, and endometrium), vagina, Bartholin glands, ovarian ligaments, broad ligaments, vulva (noting the clitoris, vestibule, urinary meatus, vaginal opening, labium minus, labium majus, and mons pubis).
      5. Describe the phases of the menstrual cycle and the hormones involved.
      6. Describe the function of the mammary glands, and list the advantages of breastfeeding.
      7. List at least five methods of contraception currently in use.
  6. Describe the basic principles of human genetics and heredity.
    1. Define heredity, medical genetics, chromosome, gene, DNA, RNA, congenital defects, dominant gene, recessive gene, homozygous gene, heterozygous gene, gametes, and mutation.
    2. Describe the process of meiosis.
    3. State the number of chromosomes present in somatic and sex cells, and describe how sex is determined in humans.
    4. Describe what is meant by the term sex-linked, and list three sex-linked traits.
  7. Perform and analyze various lab activities related to anatomy and physiology.
    1. Identify anatomy of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, and endocrine systems on models, specimens, diagrams, and/or computer programs.
    2. Identify anatomy of the digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems on models, specimens, diagrams, and/or computer programs.
Evaluation Criteria/Policies:

Students must demonstrate proficiency on all CCPOs at a minimal 75 percent level to successfully complete the course. The grade will be determined using the Delaware Tech grading system:

92 100 = A
83 91 = B
75 82 = C
0 74 = F

Students should refer to the Student Handbook for information on the Academic Standing Policy, the Academic Integrity Policy, Student Rights and Responsibilities, and other policies relevant to their academic progress.

Core Curriculum Competencies (CCCs are the competencies every graduate will develop):
  1. Apply clear and effective communication skills.
  2. Use critical thinking to solve problems.
  3. Collaborate to achieve a common goal.
  4. Demonstrate professional and ethical conduct.
  5. Use information literacy for effective vocational and/or academic research.
  6. Apply quantitative reasoning and/or scientific inquiry to solve practical problems.
Program Graduate Competencies (PGCs are the competencies every graduate will develop specific to his or her major):


Disabilities Support Statement:

The College is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. Students are encouraged to schedule an appointment with the campus Disabilities Support Counselor to request an accommodation needed due to a disability. A listing of campus Disabilities Support Counselors and contact information can be found at the disabilities services web page or visit the campus Advising Center.

Minimum Technology Requirements:
Minimum technology requirements for online, hybrid, video conferencing and web conferencing courses.