Course Number and Title: BIO 124 Review of Physiology
This course reviews the physiology of the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system, neurophysiology, cardiophysiology, respiratory and renal physiology, as well as fluid, electrolyte and acid- base balance.
- Describe the organization and physiological processes of the nervous system. (CCC 2, 6)
- Analyze the components, organization and physiological processes of the endocrine system. (CCC 2, 6)
- Integrate the organization and physiological processes of the cardiovascular system. (CCC 2, 6)
- Analyze the organization and physiological processes of respiratory system. (CCC 2, 6)
- Describe the components, organization and physiological processes of the urinary system and integrate this analysis with regulation of body fluid composition. (CCC 2, 6)
See Core Curriculum Competencies and Program Graduate Competencies at the end of the syllabus. CCPOs are linked to every competency they develop.
Upon completion of this course, the student will:
- Describe the organization and physiological processes of the nervous system.
- Review the classification of the nervous system: Central Nervous System (CNS), Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), somatic, autonomic, sympathetic, and parasympathetic systems.
- Discuss the relationship between the presence of a neurilemma and nerve repair.
- Explain resting potential, action potential, threshold, depolarization, repolarization, Hyperpolarization, and refractory period.
- Explain the propagation of an action potential.
- Compare conduction in myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers and relate to multiple sclerosis.
- Describe the anatomy of a neuroneuronal synapse.
- Describe the chemistry of chemical transmitters to include: binding at the receptor sites, inactivation and relationship to drug actions.
- Describe the effect of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and neuropeptides on the post-synaptic membrane and relate to drug actions.
- Explain synaptic delay, summation, facilitation, and synaptic fatigue.
- Explain neural integration and illustrate by example.
- Review CNS outflow, autonomic ganglia, plexuses, and pre and postganglionic neurons.
- Compare the origin and chemistry of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) neurotransmitters and their effects on visceral effectors.
- Explain the role of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers.
- Explain how “fight-or-flight” reaction and the salivation-lacrimation-urination- defecation (SLUD) reactions are dependent on ANS structure and physiology.
- Analyze the components, organization and physiological processes of the endocrine system.
- List the chemical classes of hormones, and give examples of each type.
- Compare mechanisms of target tissue stimulation.
- Lipid - soluble hormones
- Water - soluble hormones
- Explain the role of the hypothalamus and adenohypophysis in regulation of hormone release.
- Define a tropic hormone, and use an example to illustrate its mechanism of action.
- List the hormone(s) released from each of these glands, and describe their actions:
- Adrenal cortex
- Adrenal medulla
- List the hormones produced by the skin, kidneys, heart, GI tract, and lungs, and describe their actions.
- Integrate the organization and physiological processes of the cardiovascular system.
- Describe the heart’s conduction system, the conduction of electrical activity in the heart, and relate to an electrocardiogram (EKG).
- Describe a cardiac cycle and relate it to heart sounds and pressure changes.
- Explain the extrinsic control of the heart rate.
- Define and, given values calculate when appropriate, cardiac output, cardiac rate, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), preload, afterload, systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP).
- Relate the importance of cardiac output, blood volume, and peripheral resistance to blood pressure.
- Discuss determinants of peripheral resistance:
- Blood viscosity
- Visceral length
- Vessel diameter
- Describe the regulation of blood flow by arterioles.
- Describe the reflex control of blood pressure.
- Perform calculations related to interstitial fluid formation and reabsorption.
- Analyze the organization and physiological processes of respiratory system.
- Define compliance, and explain how various conditions affect it.
- Explain airway resistance and conditions which affect it.
- Relate perfusion to ventilation and illustrate by example.
- Review the structure of the respiratory membrane.
- Discuss factors affecting diffusion of gases.
- Relate partial pressures of O2 and CO2 to diffusion of gases in the alveoli, venous and arterial blood and in tissues.
- Describe the transport of CO2 by the blood.
- Describe the transport of O2 by the blood including:
- Formation of oxyhemoglobin
- Influences on hemoglobin saturation
- Effects of CO2, CO, and nitrous oxide
- Analyze the components, organization, and physiological processes of the urinary system and integrate this analysis with regulation of body fluid composition.
- Review the structure of the nephron.
- Discuss glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and secretion using practical clinical examples.
- Explain how urine concentration is regulated by Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH).
- Explain the role of the renin-angiotensin pathway, aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic hormone in regulation of Na+, K+ and fluid levels.
- Compare the electrolyte composition of the body’s fluid compartments.
- Differentiate between respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis using illustrative examples.
- Explain how the different buffer systems work in the body.
- Describe the roles of the respiratory and renal systems in the control of acid-base balance and give examples.
Students must demonstrate proficiency on all CCPOs at a minimal 75 percent level to successfully complete the course. The grade will be determined using the Delaware Tech grading system:
Students should refer to the Student Handbook for information on the Academic Standing Policy, the Academic Integrity Policy, Student Rights and Responsibilities, and other policies relevant to their academic progress.
- Apply clear and effective communication skills.
- Use critical thinking to solve problems.
- Collaborate to achieve a common goal.
- Demonstrate professional and ethical conduct.
- Use information literacy for effective vocational and/or academic research.
- Apply quantitative reasoning and/or scientific inquiry to solve practical problems.
The College is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. Students are encouraged to schedule an appointment with the campus Disabilities Support Counselor to request an accommodation needed due to a disability. A listing of campus Disabilities Support Counselors and contact information can be found at the disabilities services web page or visit the campus Advising Center.