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This course is a continuation of Chemical Principles I. Topics include solutions, thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibria, acids and bases, electrochemistry, coordination, nuclear, and macromolecular chemistry. Laboratory experiments are used to illustrate theory.

Obtain current textbook information by viewing the campus bookstore online or visit a campus bookstore. Check your course schedule for the course number and section.

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- Apply chemical and physical principles to the study of liquids, solids, and solutions. (CCC 1, 2, 4, 6; PGC 1, 7, 10)
- Use kinetics to determine rate laws and reaction mechanisms. (CCC 1, 2, 4, 6; PGC 1, 7, 10)
- Apply the principles of equilibrium to chemical systems. (CCC 1, 2, 4, 6; PGC 1, 7, 10)
- Use thermodynamics to study chemical systems. (CCC 1, 2, 4, 6; PGC 1, 7, 10)
- Apply oxidation-reduction principles to the study of electrochemical systems and cells. (CCC 1, 2, 4, 6; PGC 1, 7, 10)
- Apply atomic theory to nuclear reactions. (CCC 1, 2, 4, 6; PGC 1, 7, 10)
- Relate chemical principles to inorganic, organic, and biochemical compounds and reactions. (CCC 1, 2, 4, 6; PGC 1, 7, 10)
- Safely assemble and operate routine chemistry laboratory apparatus, and obtain valid qualitative and quantitative observations. (CCC 2, 3, 6; PGC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
- Perform and analyze various laboratory activities related to chemistry. (CCC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; PGC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
- Document laboratory observations and data in a laboratory notebook in accordance with accepted professional standards. (CCC 1, 4, 5; PGC 4, 7)

See Core Curriculum Competencies and Program Graduate Competencies at the end of the syllabus. CCPOs are linked to every competency they develop.

Upon completion of this course, the student will:

- Apply chemical and physical principles to the study of liquids, solids, and solutions.
- Apply the solubility rule “like dissolves like” to describe solubility properties of liquids and solids.
- Define
*hydrophilic*and*hydrophobic*. - Calculate enthalpies of solution.
- Describe the temperature dependence of solubility.
- State Henry’s law, and apply it to problems involving gas solubility.
- Calculate the percent concentrations, parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb), mole fraction, and molarity of a solute in solution.
- Solve problems and carry out calculations involving vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression, and boiling point elevation.
- Describe and perform calculations involving vapor-liquid equilibria.
- Calculate vapor concentrations for binary solvent mixtures from solution temperature and concentration data.
- Describe the process of osmosis, calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution, and use osmotic pressure to calculate the molar mass of a solute.
- Compare solutions to suspensions and colloidal dispersions.
- Discuss bond polarity.
- Discuss coordination chemistry.

- Use kinetics to determine rate laws and reaction mechanisms.
- Express reaction rates in terms of change in concentration of reactants and products per unit time; illustrate reactions by drawing molecular drawings.
- Describe the factors that influence reaction rates.
- Use rate data to determine rate laws by the initial rate and graphical methods.
- Calculate rate constants from experimental data and the rate law.
- Use a rate law to determine the units of the rate and rate constant, the order of reaction with respect to each reactant, and the overall order of the reaction.
- State the units of the rate constant for a given rate law.
- Evaluate reaction mechanisms, and determine whether or not a mechanism is consistent with a rate law.
- Discuss collision theory and transition state theory.
- Use the Arrhenius equation to calculate activation energies, rate constants, and relative reaction rates.
- Draw and interpret activation energy diagrams for endothermic and exothermic reactions.
- Explain the action of catalysts.
- Distinguish between and give examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts.

- Apply the principles of equilibrium to chemical systems.
- Describe dynamic equilibria, and draw molecular pictures to illustrate systems at equilibrium.
- Write mass action expressions.
- Describe the relationship between equilibrium constants at a constant pressure and at a constant concentration (K
_{p}and K_{c}). - Relate the magnitude of an equilibrium constant to the extent of an equilibrium reaction in the forward or reverse direction.
- State the effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant.
- Compare homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.
- Apply Le Chatelier’s principle to chemical equilibria.
- Calculate equilibrium constants from equilibrium concentrations.
- Use equilibrium constant expressions to calculate equilibrium concentrations.
- Identify and compare Bronsted acids and bases.
- Identify conjugate acid-base pairs.
- Discuss periodic trends in acid strength.
- Identify Lewis acids and bases.
- Define
*coordinate covalent bonding*. - Write the reaction and equilibrium constant for the ionization of water.
- Relate pH and pOH values to acid or base strength.
- Calculate the pH of a solution of a strong acid or base.
- Write ionization constants of weak acids and bases.
- State the relationship between the acid ionization constant (K
_{a}) of a Bronsted acid and the base ionization constant (K_{b}) of its conjugate base. - Perform calculations of K
_{a}or K_{b}equilibrium expressions. - Solve equilibrium problems involving aqueus solutions of weak acids, weak bases, or salts of weak acids or bases to determine pH.
- Describe the function of buffers, and identify the components in a buffer solution.
- Perform calculations for buffer solutions, and determine the pH of a buffer solution before and after addition of an acid equilibria.
- Describe polyprotic acid equilibria.
- Draw and interpret titration curves for titration of a strong acid with a strong base, a weak acid with a strong base, and a weak base with a strong acid.
- Calculate acid-base titrations.
- Select a suitable indicator for an acid-base titration, and determine the color of a solution of specified pH to which an indicator has been added.
- Write equilibrium equations and solubility product constants (K
_{sp}) for sparingly soluble and insoluble salts. - Calculate K
_{sp}from solubility data and vice versa. - Discuss the common ion effect, and perform calculations.
- Describe the effect of pH on salt solubility.
- Write equilibrium equations and formation constants for complex ions.
- Describe the effect of complexing agents on salt solubility.

- Use thermodynamics to study chemical systems.
- Review the first law of thermodynamics, enthalpy, and enthalpy changes.
- Identify spontaneous and nonspontaneous changes.
- State the relationship among molecular disorder, entropy, and spontaneity.
- State how the entropy of a system will be affected if a physical or chemical change occurs in the system.
- State the second law of thermodynamics.
- Define
*Gibbs free energy*, show how the change in Gibbs free energy is related to the changes in enthalpy and entropy, and state the effect of temperature upon spontaneity. - State the third law of thermodynamics.
- Calculate standard entropy and free energy changes for chemical reactions.
- Discuss the relationship among work, free energy, and equilibrium.
- Define
*bond energy*.

- Apply oxidation-reduction principles to the study of electrochemical systems and cells.
- Review half-reactions and balancing oxidation-reduction reactions.
- Define
*electrochemistry*. - Distinguish galvanic versus electrolytic cells.
- Perform calculations relating the amount of electricity passing through an electrolytic cell to the amount of reactant consumed or product formed in the cell.
- Write an electrochemical reaction using standard cell notation.
- Distinguish between active and passive electrodes.
- Discuss standard reduction potentials and the standard hydrogen electrode.
- Use standard reduction potentials to determine cell potentials and the spontaneous direction of a redox reaction.
- Relate cell potentials to free energy changes, equilibrium constants, and equilibrium concentrations.
- Use the Nernst equation to convert between standard cell potentials and potentials of electrochemical cells under nonstandard conditions.
- Discuss applications of galvanic and electrolytic cells.

- Apply atomic theory to nuclear reactions.
- Describe conservation of mass and energy.
- Predict whether or not a nuclide is stable.
- State symbols and properties of alpha and beta particles, positrons, and gamma rays.
- Write balanced equations for nuclear decay.
- Define
*transmutation,*and balance artificial transmutation reactions. - Describe measurement of radiation and radiation safety.
- Discuss applications of radio-isotopic measurements.
- Discuss fusion and fission.

- Relate chemical principles to inorganic, organic, and biochemical compounds and reactions.
- Define
*organic chemistry*. - Describe the importance of carbon to organic and biochemistry.
- Define and discuss polymerization.
- Compare addition and condensation polymerization.
- Describe the general properties of polymers.
- List and distinguish among the four basic families of biomolecules.

- Define
- Safely assemble and operate routine chemistry laboratory apparatus, and obtain valid qualitative and quantitative observations.
- Demonstrate correct use of laboratory equipment, including balances, volumetric glassware, spectrometers, and micropipettes.
- Determine a molar mass.
- Prepare and analyze a standard solution.
- Determine the rate law of a reaction.
- Determine the kinetics of a reaction.
- Examine Le Chatelier’s principle.
- Determine equilibrium constant.
- Prepare buffers.
- Analyze an antacid.
- Determine the K
_{sp}of a sparingly soluble salt. - Perform distillation of solutions.
- Examine galvanic and electrolytic cells.
- Examine Lewis acid and bases chemistry.
- Prepare mixed solvents, and separate a sample via solid phase extraction.

- Perform and analyze various laboratory activities related to chemistry.
- Describe and apply safe laboratory practices.
- Demonstrate graphical analysis of data.
- Perform dilutions.

- Document laboratory observations and data in a laboratory notebook in accordance with accepted professional standards.
- Keep a laboratory notebook.
- Obtain data on the chemical and physical properties of substances using printed and online resources.

Students must demonstrate proficiency on all CCPOs at a minimal 75 percent level to successfully complete the course. The grade will be determined using the Delaware Tech grading system:

92 | – | 100 | = | A |
---|---|---|---|---|

83 | – | 91 | = | B |

75 | – | 82 | = | C |

0 | – | 74 | = | F |

Students should refer to the Student Handbook for information on the Academic Standing Policy, the Academic Integrity Policy, Student Rights and Responsibilities, and other policies relevant to their academic progress.

- Apply clear and effective communication skills.
- Use critical thinking to solve problems.
- Collaborate to achieve a common goal.
- Demonstrate professional and ethical conduct.
- Use information literacy for effective vocational and/or academic research.
- Apply quantitative reasoning and/or scientific inquiry to solve practical problems.

- Apply knowledge of the theories and principles of chemistry.
- Follow safety procedures.
- Perform basic laboratory operations and techniques.
- Keep a laboratory notebook following standard laboratory practices and present data in an organized written format.
- Prepare common laboratory solutions.
- Prepare and purify samples using common techniques.
- Communicate in a professional manner.
- Analyze samples by common qualitative and quantitative techniques.
- Use and maintain common laboratory instruments and equipment.
- Apply mathematical concepts to the solution of scientific problems.

The College is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. Students are encouraged to schedule an appointment with the campus Disabilities Support Counselor to request an accommodation needed due to a disability. A listing of campus Disabilities Support Counselors and contact information can be found at the disabilities services web page or visit the campus Advising Center.