Course Number and Title: EXS 230 Health Fitness Instruction
This course covers information in the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Health/Fitness Specialist certification examination. Topics examined include methods to assess, design, and implement individual and group exercise and fitness programs for apparently healthy individuals and those with controlled disease. Case studies and coordinated laboratory activities are an integral part of this course.
Exercise Science Program Manual
Allied Health/Science Department Program Student Policy Manual
- Describe and employ strategies to improve the current state of fitness in America using the ACSM code of ethics. (CCC 2, 4; PGC 1, 8, 9)
- Differentiate appropriate entry-level behavior patterns consistent with employer and professional association guidelines. (CCC 2, 3, 4; PGC 1, 4, 7)
- Discuss the general principles and scientific foundations for exercise fitness evaluations and prescription plans. (CCC 3, 4, 5, 6; PGC 7, 8)
- Analyze the components of a pre-exercise physical fitness screening. (CCC 2, 6; PGC 1, 2, 7)
- Describe, conduct, and evaluate cardiovascular assessments to appraise cardiopulmonary fitness, and develop appropriate aerobic exercise prescription plans. (CCC 1, 2, 5, 6; PGC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10)
- Describe, conduct, and evaluate muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition to develop appropriate exercise prescription plans. (CCC 1, 2, 5, 6; PGC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10)
- Conduct a nutritional and body analysis on a client, and prepare suggestions for modifications to the diet and the conditioning program to enhance and optimize physical performance. (CCC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; PGC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10)
- Design and revise safe and effective individualized aerobic exercise prescription plans based upon pre-exercise screenings for apparently healthy and special populations. (CCC 3, 4, 5; PGC 7, 8, 10)
- Conduct and interpret data from various protocols used in clinical settings to evaluate fitness performance. (CCC 2, 6; PGC 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10)
- Demonstrate and appropriately assess the components of professional behaviors as applied in the classroom and lab activities. (CCC 3, 4; PGC 1, 5)
See Core Curriculum Competencies and Program Graduate Competencies at the end of the syllabus. CCPOs are linked to every competency they develop.
Upon completion of this course, the student will:
- Describe and employ strategies to improve the current state of fitness in America using the ACSM code of ethics.
- Describe the major events of the modern day fitness movement.
- Discuss the current activity levels of American adults.
- Discuss the current state of youth fitness.
- Describe and employ strategies for increasing physical activity.
- Differentiate appropriate entry-level behavior patterns consistent with employer and professional association guidelines.
- Describe the relationship of physical activity to health and quality of life.
- Describe the elements, goals, and behaviors of total fitness and a healthy life.
- Identify the short- and long-term benefits associated with fitness.
- Describe the risks associated with exercise testing and participation.
- Describe and define the goals and components of health, fitness, and performance.
- List the factors that are important in setting an individual’s fitness goals.
- Describe various health appraisal and screening methods used prior to testing or prescribing moderate and/or vigorous intensity exercise.
- List the conditions, test results, signs, and symptoms that may indicate the need for special attention during exercise.
- Describe the proper logical sequence of fitness tests.
- Describe the characteristics of a good exercise leader.
- Discuss the general principles and scientific foundations for exercise fitness evaluations and prescription plans.
- Describe how variations in dosage are used for health benefits.
- Discuss the concepts of overload and specificity as they relate to training programs.
- Discuss the value of balancing a walking program’s duration and intensity to improve enjoyment and adherence.
- Describe the appropriate beginning goals for people using exercise equipment.
- Describe a circuit training program using aerobic and strength equipment.
- Discuss various motivational strategies for beginning and continuing exercise programs.
- Describe the trans-theoretical model and stages involved in health behavior change.
- Discuss strategies that can be used to monitor and support behavior change.
- Explain the effects of arm versus leg exercise on blood pressure.
- Explain the effects of cessation of fitness programs for muscles, metabolism, and the cardiovascular system.
- Describe the effect of temperature, humidity, altitude, and pollution on exercise.
- Describe how validity and accuracy of testing affects interpretation and utilization of data to develop a fitness program.
- Analyze the components of a pre-exercise physical fitness screening.
- Describe the three categories of health status used by the ACSM.
- List and describe the significance of the components of a medical/health status questionnaire for screening prior to exercise.
- Use the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) for screening prior to submaximal, moderate, and gently progressive exercise.
- Describe the guidelines for medical examination prior to and physician supervision during exercise testing.
- Describe the evaluation process used for determining when exercise should begin and at what level (VO2max) with each of the following types of individuals:
- Apparently healthy individuals
- Individuals at increased risk
- Individuals with disease
- Describe absolute contraindications and relative contraindications for exercise and exercise testing in out-of-hospital settings.
- Describe the importance of informed consent forms prior to graded exercise testing, physical fitness tests, and fitness programs.
- Compare and contrast the YMCA; the Canadian standardized test of fitness (CSTF); the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD); and the FitnessGram physical fitness tests.
- List and describe the ACSM emergency procedures.
- Describe, conduct, and evaluate cardiovascular assessments to appraise cardiopulmonary fitness, and develop appropriate aerobic exercise prescription plans.
- Describe procedures for walking, jogging, or running field tests.
- Describe the ACSM’s general guidelines for a cardiorespiratory fitness program, including warm-up, stretching, and cool-down.
- Discuss the physiological benefits and ACSM recommendations of a warm-up prior to stretching and strenuous exercise.
- Describe the ACSM standards for frequency, intensity, and time of exercise (FIT) as they apply to aerobic exercise prescription and the improvement of VO2max.
- Describe and calculate training heart rate using the Karvonen formula.
- Compare and contrast exercise prescriptions for the general public, the fit population, and persons with graded exercise test results.
- Distinguish the guidelines for moderate intensity exercise programs and those for improving functional capacity.
- Classify resting blood pressures for normal, high normal, and hypertensive individuals.
- Describe and perform the proper technique for taking blood pressure measurements at rest and during exercise.
- Compare and contrast various populations with respect to their changes in heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, VO2max, systolic pressure, and oxygen extraction during a graded exercise test.
- Describe the procedures and variables measured when using treadmills, cycle ergometers, and bench steps as instruments to use in maximal and submaximal graded exercise tests.
- Describe the significance of the “seated cool down” following a 12-lead exercise stress test.
- Use the ACSM equations to calculate VO2max, metabolic equivalency of task (MET), and caloric expenditure based upon field tests for cardiovascular fitness.
- Describe the heart rate extrapolation procedures to estimate VO2max estimate when using a submaximal treadmill, cycle, and bench step-graded exercise tests.
- Describe, conduct, and evaluate muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition to develop appropriate exercise prescription plans.
- Discuss the physiological adaptations associated with strength training in males and females.
- Describe the maturational changes in bone and muscle as people age.
- Describe the theories of delayed onset muscle soreness and over-training.
- Review the differences between fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers.
- Identify, describe, and perform field tests to evaluate muscular endurance.
- List the factors that affect and describe the relationships among flexibility, range of motion, and low back function.
- Describe the pros and cons of the sit-and-reach test.
- Explain the principles of overload, specificity, warm-up and cool-down, progression, and rest and how they relate to resistance training.
- Compare and contrast training programs used for strength gains, size gains, maintenance, and bone mass regulation.
- Describe how the anatomical limitations of range of motion are a factor when prescribing flexibility exercises.
- Compare and contrast ectomorphic, mesomorphic, and endomorphic body types.
- Assess the advantages and disadvantages of various body composition techniques.
- Compare past and present height-weight tables.
- Describe the proper procedures for taking height and weight measurements.
- Describe the body mass index and its effectiveness in determining weight problems.
- Describe and perform the proper procedures used to take skinfold measurements for males and females.
- Describe the proper technique for determining body fat by hydrostatic weighing.
- Describe and interpret anthropometric readings.
- Describe the concepts for determining body fat by bioelectrical impedance.
- Explain the use of waist-to-hip circumference (WHR) to determine topography of the human body.
- Conduct and evaluate a pre-exercise questionnaire, body composition analysis, sit- and-reach flexibility, sit-up test, push-up test, and grip strength test, then design a safe and effective exercise prescription plan.
- Conduct a nutritional and body analysis on a client, and prepare suggestions for modifications to the diet and conditioning program to enhance and optimize physical performance.
- Describe the components of the female athlete triad.
- Identify the common measurement sites for skinfolds and girths.
- Explain how to calculate target body weights.
- Describe the typical changes in body composition that occur with aging.
- Identify the factors that contribute to obesity.
- Discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and benefits of exercise in obese individuals.
- Identify the guidelines, goals, and role of exercise for proper weight loss, gain, and maintenance.
- Describe the efficacy of quick fix weight loss methods.
- Explain the signs and types of eating disorders.
- Design and revise safe and effective individualized aerobic exercise prescription plans based upon pre-exercise screenings for apparently healthy and special populations.
- Describe safety and clothing considerations for walking, jogging, flexibility, and strength training.
- Explain the rationale for the modifications of exercise prescription for children, the elderly, and pregnant women.
- Describe how stress affects the body and how physical activity may affect stress.
- Describe ways to minimize risk of injury during exercise, including problems associated with the vertebral column, the lumbosacral joints, and the knee joint.
- Explain the signs, symptoms, and treatment of soft tissue, low back, and bone injuries.
- Describe the signs, symptoms, and management of common cardiopulmonary and orthopedic complications that occur with exercise.
- Discuss common prescription medications used for treatment of cardiovascular disease and the impact of these medications on exercise.
- Identify the risk factors for coronary heart disease.
- Conduct and evaluate a pre-exercise questionnaire, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (EKG), and a 12-lead exercise EKG with rate of perceived exertion (RPE) while measuring blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) at the end of each stage; then design a safe and effective exercise prescription plan.
- Conduct and interpret data from various protocols used in clinical settings to evaluate fitness performance.
- Plan and prepare a safe and effective exercise prescription plan based upon the results of a complete fitness evaluation.
- Demonstrate how to calibrate a motor driven treadmill, cycle ergometer, and sphygmomanometer.
- Conduct anaerobic power and capacity measurements.
- Describe the importance and procedures used for pulmonary function testing.
- Describe the measurement of oxygen uptake and energy expenditure.
- Given all necessary equipment, conduct a blood pressure reading on a resting and an exercising patient within a 5 mm range of the instructor’s systolic and diastolic reading.
- Conduct various submaximal and maximal testing procedures.
- Develop exercise prescription plans based upon pre-exercise screenings, EKG readings, and VO2 measurements.
- Use the ACSM equations for walking, cycling, stepping, and arm ergometry to estimate the oxygen cost and energy expenditure in terms of L/min, kcal/min, ml/kg/min, METs, and kcal/kg/hr.
- Demonstrate and appropriately assess the components of professional behaviors as applied in the classroom and lab activities.
- Demonstrate professional behaviors and attributes of the professional behaviors tool.
- Self-assess professional behaviors and modify accordingly.
- Comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.
- Demonstrate the ability to maintain the order of equipment, supplies, and testing area.
Students must demonstrate proficiency on all CCPOs at a minimal 75 percent level to successfully complete the course. The grade will be determined using the Delaware Tech grading system:
Students should refer to the Student Handbook for information on the Academic Standing Policy, the Academic Integrity Policy, Student Rights and Responsibilities, and other policies relevant to their academic progress.
- Apply clear and effective communication skills.
- Use critical thinking to solve problems.
- Collaborate to achieve a common goal.
- Demonstrate professional and ethical conduct.
- Use information literacy for effective vocational and/or academic research.
- Apply quantitative reasoning and/or scientific inquiry to solve practical problems.
Integrate professional behaviors in an ethical, legal, safe, and effective manner within the exercise science delivery system.
Perform appropriate measurement and assessment techniques to assist in evaluating a client’s status for proper exercise prescription plans.
Prescribe and implement a comprehensive exercise prescription plan based upon pre- exercise screenings.
Communicate effectively with clients about their progress.
Modify existing exercise prescription plans based upon routinely scheduled re- evaluations of clients.
Document relevant aspects of client treatment.
Demonstrate effective written, oral, and nonverbal communication skills with clients, their families, colleagues, health care providers, and the public.
Communicate knowledge by participating in the teaching and explaining of exercise science concepts to clients, colleagues and the public.
Recognize the importance of continued development of knowledge and skills through the practice of reading professional literature and attending continuing education activities.
Demonstrate the ability to apply their knowledge to aspects of clinical practice, as required of an entry-level Certified Exercise Science technologist.
The College is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. Students are encouraged to schedule an appointment with the campus Disabilities Support Counselor to request an accommodation needed due to a disability. A listing of campus Disabilities Support Counselors and contact information can be found at the disabilities services web page or visit the campus Advising Center.