PTA 116 Introduction to Pathology


Campus Location:
Georgetown, Wilmington
Effective Date:
2019-51
Prerequisite:
BIO 121, PTA 101 or concurrent, SSC 100 or concurrent
Co-Requisites:

none

Course Credits and Hours:
3.00 credits
3.00 lecture hours/week
0.00 lab hours/week
Course Description:

This course introduces diseases, including process and their influence on the anatomical and physiologic activity of the body.

Required Text(s):

Obtain current textbook information by viewing the campus bookstore online or visit a campus bookstore. Check your course schedule for the course number and section.

Additional Materials:

None

Schedule Type:
Classroom Course
Disclaimer:

None

Core Course Performance Objectives (CCPOs):
  1. Discuss the fundamental principles of pathology and how they relate to physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 8)
  2. Differentiate among various forms of viral, bacterial, integumentary, genetic, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases and their implications for physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  3. Examine various forms of cardiovascular disorders and their implications for physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  4. Discuss and categorize various forms of excretory disorders and their implications for physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  5. Describe and categorize various forms of digestive, nutritional, and endocrine disorders and their implications for physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  6. Differentiate among respiratory disorders and their implications for physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  7. Differentiate among nervous, skeletal, and muscular system disorders and their implications for physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  8. Discuss the influence of stress and aging and their implications for physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  9. Describe the importance of pharmacology in physical therapy. (CCC 2; PGC 5)
  10. Use professional behaviors in the classroom. (CCC 4; PGC 6)

See Core Curriculum Competencies and Program Graduate Competencies at the end of the syllabus. CCPOs are linked to every competency they develop.

Measurable Performance Objectives (MPOs):

Upon completion of this course, the student will:

  1. Discuss the fundamental principles of pathology and how they relate to physical therapy.
    1. Define homeostasis, and give examples of how the body maintains homeostasis.
    2. Discuss and define disease, symptoms, signs, etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis.
    3. Explain why it is important for physical therapist assistants to have a knowledge and understanding of pathology.
    4. Discuss and describe the events following injury.
    5. Describe the differences between inflammation and infection.
    6. Describe the events that occur upon blood vessel damage.
    7. Describe the process of healing and identify factors that may delay healing.
  2. Differentiate among various forms of viral, bacterial, integumentary, genetic, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases and their implications for physical therapy.
    1. List various infectious agents and provide examples of diseases associated with them.
    2. Discuss antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, including but not limited to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE), and their significance regarding patient care.
    3. Review the structure and function of the skin.
    4. Distinguish among bacterial, fungal, and viral infectious skin diseases.
    5. Differentiate the following diseases of the skin:
      1. Pruritus
      2. Eczema
      3. Seborrheic dermatitis
      4. Psoriasis
      5. Scleroderma
    6. Describe various types of skin wounds, burns, ulcers, skin cancers, and skin related disorders and their impact on providing physical therapy.
    7. Classify types of burns, and explain the Rule of Nine’s as it applies to burns.
    8. Describe hypersensitivity and transplantation and give examples.
    9. Describe and differentiate autoimmunity, immunodeficiency diseases, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
    10. Describe the warning signs, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatments for various types of neoplasms.
    11. Describe diseases associated with genetic abnormalities and how they can be diagnosed by prenatal testing.
    12. Define prematurity, birth injury, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
  3. Examine various forms of cardiovascular disorders and their implications for physical therapy.
    1. Describe how the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems together form the circulatory system.
    2. Discuss the causes, symptoms, and physical therapy considerations for anemia, polycythemia (erythrocytosis), and bleeding (hemorrhagic) diseases.
    3. Discuss diseases of white blood cell forming tissue (e.g., leukemia, lymphomas, etc.).
    4. Describe arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis by examining similarities and differences.
    5. Describe the pathology, causes, and treatment of aneurysms.
    6. Differentiate the following diseases and conditions of the peripheral vascular system and their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Venous insufficiency 
      2. Thrombophlebitis
      3. Varicose veins
      4. Arterial insufficiency
      5. Raynaud’s
      6. Thromboangitis obliterans
      7. Lymphedema
    7. Define shock, and identify various conditions that may result in shock.
    8. Review the structure, blood circulation pathways, and electrical activity of the heart.
    9. Discuss the causes, prevention, and therapy of coronary heart disease.
    10. Examine cardiovascular adjustments to activity/exercise.
    11. Describe the relationship between ischemia, angina, and infarctions.
    12. Describe and discuss left versus right congestive heart failure and its implications to physical therapy.
    13. Describe the indications and implications of coronary artery bypass surgery.
    14. Discuss the different types of congenital heart diseases.
    15. Describe the different types of valvular diseases.
    16. Describe the cause, process, signs, and preventative treatment of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and infective endocarditis.
  4. Discuss and categorize various forms of excretory disorders and their implications for physical therapy.
    1. Review the anatomy and function of the kidneys.
    2. Describe the cause, symptoms, and prognosis of glomerulonephritis.
    3. Describe the causes, effects, symptoms, prognosis and treatment of renal failure.
    4. Describe end stage renal disease and the implications for physical therapy.
    5. Discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatment of pyelonephritis.
    6. Describe the diseases of the urinary bladder and the urethra.
    7. Identify diagnostic tests used to assess urinary function.
  5. Describe and categorize various forms of digestive, nutritional, and endocrine disorders and their implications for physical therapy.
    1. Describe the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of common digestive system disorders and their implications for physical therapy.
    2. List and describe the causes of nutritional diseases, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
    3. Describe obesity with regards to its description, classification, prevalence, mortality, and associated conditions and risks.
    4. Describe the benefits of regular exercise and weight loss on the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and metabolism for obese individuals.
    5. List and describe the types of diabetes, effects of diabetes on the body, and the implications for physical therapy.
    6. Describe the importance and mechanisms of blood glucose monitoring.
    7. Describe the causes, lesions, and manifestations of hyposecretion and hypersecretion of the endocrine glands.
    8. Describe the function and relationship of the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas.
    9. Describe the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of common liver, gall bladder, and pancreas disorders.
  6. Differentiate among respiratory disorders and their implications for physical therapy.
    1. Describe the structure and function of the respiratory system.
    2. Describe the etiology, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases and the implications for physical therapy.
    3. Describe the etiology, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis of restrictive lung diseases and the implications for physical therapy.
    4. Describe the etiology, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis of other lung diseases and the implications for physical therapy.
    5. Describe cough and sputum characteristics and physical therapy interventions to improve respiratory health.
  7. Differentiate among nervous, skeletal, and muscular system disorders and their implications for physical therapy.
    1. Identify techniques for the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders.
    2. Differentiate the following congenital diseases and their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Down syndrome
      2. Spina bifida
      3. Cerebral palsy
      4. Hydrocephalus
    3. Differentiate the following cranial nerve diseases and their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Bell’s palsy
      2. Trigeminal neuralgia
    4. Differentiate the following infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Meningitis
      2. Encephalitis
      3. Polio and post-polio syndrome
    5. Differentiate the following degenerative diseases of the CNS and describe the causes, signs and symptoms, types, and treatments. Describe their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Alzheimer’s disease
      2. Multiple sclerosis
      3. Parkinson’s disease
      4. Huntington’s chorea
      5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
      6. Dementia
      7. Myasthenia gravis
    6. Describe the causes, signs and symptoms, types, and treatments of strokes and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA).
    7. Discuss trauma of the CNS comparing tissue injury during concussion, contusion, closed and open head injury, and spinal cord injury.
    8. Describe signs and symptoms of high intracranial pressure.
    9. Describe migraines and common etiologies.
    10. Describe epilepsy and types of seizure disorders and emergency treatment for seizure disorders.
    11. Distinguish between myopathic and neurogenic diseases.
    12. Compare and contrast mononeuropathies and polyneuropathies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the implications to physical therapy.
    13. Discuss the terminology and describe the physiology of pain.
    14. Describe the diagnostics of bone disorders.
    15. Describe the type, healing process, and management of fractures.
    16. Differentiate the following skeletomuscular disorders and their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Clubfoot
      2. Congenital dislocation of the hip
      3. Sprains and strains
      4. Low back pain
      5. Scoliosis and kyphosis
      6. Osteomyelitis
      7. Osteomalacia
      8. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
      9. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
    17. Differentiate the following degenerative joint diseases and their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Rheumatoid arthritis
      2. Osteoarthritis - degenerative joint disease
      3. Gouty arthritis
      4. Osteoporosis
      5. Spondylarthropathies
    18. Differentiate the following myopathies, dystrophies, and neuromuscular junction diseases and their implications for physical therapy:
      1. Duchenne dystrophy
      2. Limb-Girdle dystrophy
      3. Facioscapulo-humoral
      4. Myotonic dystrophy
      5. Myasthenia gravis
    19. Describe the effects of immobility on the body.
  8. Discuss the influence of stress and aging and their implications for physical therapy.
    1. Describe the physiological effects of stress on the body.
    2. Discuss examples of stress related diseases.
    3. Describe common disease processes of the elderly population
    4. Discuss the normal biological changes associated with aging.
  9. Describe the importance of pharmacology in physical therapy.
    1. Identify the indications and contraindications on exercise for individuals taking medications for the following diseases:
      1. Cardiovascular disease
      2. Respiratory disease
      3. Diabetes
      4. Renal disease
    2. Identify precautions to be aware of when individuals are taking the following medications:
      1. Anti-anxiety
      2. Anti-depressants
      3. Anti-psychotics
      4. . Anti-Parkinson’s
      5. Anti-epileptic
      6. Muscle relaxants
      7. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
      8. Glucocorticoids
      9. Anti-arthritic
      10. Neuromuscular disease
      11. Narcotics
      12. Anti-osteoporosis
  10. Use of professional behaviors in the classroom.
    1. Demonstrate professional behavior patterns consistent with beginning-level professional behaviors. These include but not limited to adhering to designate times for each educational experience, being adequately prepared, participating in class discussions, and displaying appropriate interpersonal dynamics and communication skills.
Evaluation Criteria/Policies:

Students must demonstrate proficiency on all CCPOs at a minimal 75 percent level to successfully complete the course. The grade will be determined using the Delaware Tech grading system:

92 100 = A
83 91 = B
75 82 = C
0 74 = F

Students should refer to the Student Handbook for information on the Academic Standing Policy, the Academic Integrity Policy, Student Rights and Responsibilities, and other policies relevant to their academic progress.

 
Core Curriculum Competencies (CCCs are the competencies every graduate will develop):
  1. Apply clear and effective communication skills.
  2. Use critical thinking to solve problems.
  3. Collaborate to achieve a common goal.
  4. Demonstrate professional and ethical conduct.
  5. Use information literacy for effective vocational and/or academic research.
  6. Apply quantitative reasoning and/or scientific inquiry to solve practical problems.
Program Graduate Competencies (PGCs are the competencies every graduate will develop specific to his or her major):

AHTAASPTA

  1. Work under the supervision of a physical therapist in an ethical, legal, safe and effective manner.
  2. Implement PT interventions within the plan of care.
  3. Perform specific data collection techniques related to the plan of care.
  4. Demonstrate effective communication in the physical therapy environment.
  5. Formulate appropriate judgments and modification to the program within the patient’s plan of care.
  6. Demonstrate effective interactions and professional behaviors.
  7. Participate in career development activities.
  8. Exhibit a commitment to the physical therapy profession, physical therapy patients, and the community.
Disabilities Support Statement:

The College is committed to providing reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. Students are encouraged to schedule an appointment with the campus Disabilities Support Counselor to request an accommodation needed due to a disability. A listing of campus Disabilities Support Counselors and contact information can be found at the disabilities services web page or visit the campus Advising Center.

Minimum Technology Requirements:
Minimum technology requirements for online, hybrid, video conferencing and web conferencing courses.